The Ultimate Guide to Caring for Bearded Dragons

So you’ve recently adopted a bearded dragon and now you’re wondering if they are difficult to care for. Look no further! In this ultimate guide to caring for bearded dragons, you’ll discover all the essential tips and tricks to provide the best care for your scaly friend. From creating the perfect habitat to feeding and handling, we’ve got you covered. Whether you’re a first-time owner or looking to expand your reptile knowledge, this guide will help you navigate the wonderful world of bearded dragon care with ease and confidence. So let’s dive in and ensure your bearded dragon lives a happy and healthy life!

The Ultimate Guide to Caring for Bearded Dragons

Housing and Environment

Choosing the Right Enclosure

When it comes to housing a bearded dragon, choosing the right enclosure is crucial to their health and well-being. A tank or terrarium that is at least 40 gallons in size is recommended for an adult bearded dragon, as they require ample space to move around. It should have a secure lid to prevent any escapes, as bearded dragons are known for their curious nature and their ability to climb.

Temperature Control

Maintaining the proper temperature in your bearded dragon’s enclosure is essential for their health and proper digestion. Bearded dragons are ectothermic, meaning they rely on external heat sources to regulate their body temperature. A basking spot with a temperature of around 95-105°F (35-40°C) should be provided during the day, and the ambient temperature in the enclosure should be kept between 80-85°F (27-29°C). A gradient should be created in the enclosure, with a cool side and a warmer basking side, allowing the dragon to thermoregulate as needed.


Proper lighting is vital for the well-being of your bearded dragon. They require both heat and UVB light to thrive. UVB light is essential for the production of vitamin D3, which is crucial for the absorption of calcium. It is recommended to provide a UVB light source that covers at least two-thirds of the enclosure and replace it every 6-12 months. In addition to the UVB light, a basking light should be provided to create a warm spot for your dragon to bask and thermoregulate.

Substrate Options

Choosing the right substrate for your bearded dragon’s enclosure is important for their health and safety. Avoid loose substrates, such as sand or wood shavings, as they can be ingested and lead to impaction. Opt for non-particulate substrates such as reptile carpet, paper towels, or ceramic tiles. These options are easier to clean and will minimize the risk of impaction.

Decorations and Hiding Spots

Creating a stimulating and enriching environment for your bearded dragon is essential for their overall well-being. Provide a variety of decorations and hiding spots such as rocks, branches, and caves. These will not only create a visually appealing habitat but also allow your dragon to exhibit natural behaviors such as climbing and digging. Ensure that all decorations are securely placed to prevent any accidents or injuries.

Feeding and Nutrition

Proper Diet for Bearded Dragons

A proper diet is crucial for the health and growth of your bearded dragon. Their diet should consist primarily of leafy greens and vegetables, with a smaller portion of protein. Leafy greens such as collard greens, mustard greens, and dandelion greens should make up the majority of their diet. Additionally, a variety of other vegetables, such as bell peppers and squash, can be offered. It is important to avoid feeding them toxic or harmful foods such as avocado or rhubarb.

Feeding Schedule

Establishing a feeding schedule for your bearded dragon is important for maintaining their health and digestion. Juvenile dragons should be fed twice a day, while adults can be fed once a day. Offer a variety of vegetables and leafy greens daily, and provide protein sources such as insects (crickets, mealworms, dubia roaches) 2-3 times a week. It’s important to monitor their appetite and adjust the feeding schedule accordingly.

Live Food vs. Commercial Food

Live food, such as insects, is a crucial component of a bearded dragon’s diet. They provide the necessary protein and nutrients for their growth and overall health. It is recommended to offer a variety of live food options such as crickets, mealworms, and dubia roaches. However, commercially available bearded dragon food can also be incorporated into their diet. These food options are specifically formulated to meet the nutritional needs of bearded dragons and can be a convenient alternative to live food.

Supplements and Vitamins

To ensure that your bearded dragon receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals, it is important to provide them with appropriate supplements. Calcium and vitamin D3 are particularly important for their bone health. Dusting their food with a calcium supplement two to three times a week, and a multivitamin supplement once a week, will help meet their nutritional requirements.

Water Requirements

While bearded dragons primarily obtain moisture from their diet, it is still important to provide them with a fresh water source. A shallow dish of water should be available in their enclosure at all times. However, it is worth noting that bearded dragons are not proficient swimmers, so the water dish should be shallow to prevent any accidents. Additionally, spraying their enclosure with water can help increase humidity, which aids in shedding.

Handling and Socialization

Building Trust

Building trust with your bearded dragon is an important aspect of their socialization. Spend time near their enclosure, talking to them in a soothing voice, and offering treats. Allow them to become accustomed to your presence and scent before attempting to handle them. Patience and consistency are key when it comes to building trust.

Proper Handling Techniques

When handling your bearded dragon, it is important to use proper techniques to ensure their safety and comfort. Support their body with both hands and avoid grabbing them by the tail, as this can cause stress or even injury. Be gentle but firm in your grip, and avoid any sudden or jerky movements. If your dragon shows signs of distress or discomfort, it’s best to gently place them back in their enclosure.

Bonding with Your Bearded Dragon

Bonding with your bearded dragon can be a rewarding experience. Spend time with them on a regular basis, allowing them to explore and interact with you in a safe, supervised environment. Hand-feeding them their favorite treats or quietly reading a book near their enclosure can help strengthen the bond between you and your dragon.

Introducing to Other Pets

If you have other pets, it is important to introduce them to your bearded dragon carefully and under controlled circumstances. Some pets may view the bearded dragon as prey or exhibit territorial behavior. Always supervise interactions between your bearded dragon and other animals, and provide a safe, separate space for your dragon if needed.

Social Interaction

Bearded dragons are social creatures and can benefit from regular social interaction. While they may not require the same level of socialization as some other pets, interacting with your dragon on a daily basis can provide mental stimulation and prevent loneliness. Talking to them, allowing them to explore outside of their enclosure, and providing opportunities for supervised interaction with other trusted individuals can all help fulfill their social needs.

Health and Veterinary Care

Common Health Issues

While bearded dragons are generally hardy pets, they can still experience health issues. Some common health issues include respiratory infections, metabolic bone disease, parasites, and shedding problems. It is important to monitor your dragon for any signs of illness and seek veterinary care if you notice any unusual behavior or symptoms.

Signs of Illness

It is important to be familiar with the signs of illness in bearded dragons. These may include decreased appetite, lethargy, weight loss, abnormal stool, swelling, discharge from the nose or mouth, or unusual behaviors. If you notice any of these signs, it is recommended to consult a reptile-savvy veterinarian for an examination and appropriate treatment.

Regular Veterinary Check-ups

Regular veterinary check-ups are an essential part of ensuring the health and well-being of your bearded dragon. A reptile-savvy veterinarian can perform thorough examinations, provide preventive care, and address any health concerns. Routine check-ups are particularly important for younger dragons, as they may require more frequent monitoring.

Parasite Prevention

Parasites, such as mites and internal worms, can affect the health of your bearded dragon. Regular fecal examinations by a reptile veterinarian can help detect and treat any parasite infestations. Proper hygiene practices, such as regular cleaning of the enclosure and washing hands before and after handling your dragon, can also help reduce the risk of parasites.

Quarantine Procedures

If you have multiple bearded dragons or plan to introduce a new dragon to your household, it is important to implement quarantine procedures. Quarantining helps prevent the spread of potential illnesses and allows new dragons to be observed for any signs of illness before introducing them to your established dragons. Quarantine should last for at least 4-6 weeks before any introductions take place.

The Ultimate Guide to Caring for Bearded Dragons

Grooming and Hygiene


Bathing your bearded dragon serves multiple purposes. It helps keep their skin hydrated, aids in shedding, and promotes good hygiene. Fill a shallow container with lukewarm water and allow your dragon to soak for 10-15 minutes, ensuring their head is above the water. Gently rubbing their skin with a soft toothbrush can help remove any dirt or shed skin. Be sure to thoroughly dry them afterward to prevent chilling.

Nail Trimming

Regular nail trimming is necessary to prevent overgrowth and discomfort for your bearded dragon. Use a small, reptile-friendly nail trimmer and carefully trim the tips of their nails, taking care not to cut into the quick. If you are unsure or uncomfortable with trimming their nails yourself, seek assistance from a reptile-savvy veterinarian or an experienced reptile groomer.


Bearded dragons go through regular shedding cycles as they grow. During shedding, their skin may appear dull, and they may experience itchiness. Providing a humid hide or lightly misting their enclosure can help facilitate the shedding process. It is important to avoid forcefully removing any shed skin, as it should come off naturally. If there are any concerns or difficulties with shedding, consult a veterinarian for guidance.

Oral Care

Oral hygiene is important to maintain the health of your bearded dragon’s mouth and teeth. While bearded dragons don’t require daily teeth brushing like humans do, it is important to monitor their oral health. Regularly check for any signs of dental issues, such as discolored or damaged teeth, and consult a reptile-savvy veterinarian if any concerns arise.

Cleaning and Sanitizing the Enclosure

Cleaning and sanitizing your bearded dragon’s enclosure is essential for preventing the buildup of bacteria and maintaining a healthy environment. Remove any uneaten food, clean the water dish daily, and spot clean any soiled areas regularly. Deep cleaning should be done on a weekly basis, which includes removing all substrate, scrubbing the enclosure with a reptile-safe disinfectant, and thoroughly rinsing before setting up again.

Behavior and Communication

Understanding Bearded Dragon Behavior

Understanding your bearded dragon’s behavior is key to providing appropriate care and identifying any potential issues. Bearded dragons exhibit various behaviors, such as basking, digging, head-bobbing, and arm-waving, which have different meanings. Observing their behaviors and familiarizing yourself with their natural instincts will help you better understand their needs and behaviors.

Body Language

Bearded dragons communicate through their body language. Paying attention to their body posture, color changes, and tail movements can give you insight into their emotional state and overall health. For example, a flattened body and black beard may indicate stress or aggression, while a relaxed and brightly colored dragon typically indicates contentment.


Bearded dragons are generally not known for vocalizing like some other reptiles or mammals. However, they can produce hissing or puffing sounds when feeling threatened or territorial. These vocalizations should be taken as cues to observe their body language and assess the situation to prevent any potential conflicts.

Stress and Aggression

Bearded dragons can experience stress and may display aggressive behaviors if they feel threatened or overwhelmed. It is important to provide them with a calm and secure environment, minimize handling during times of stress (such as during shedding or after a relocation), and avoid exposing them to loud noises or sudden changes in their surroundings.

Signs of Contentment

When a bearded dragon feels content, they will display relaxed body posture, bright and vibrant colors, and exhibit natural behaviors such as basking and exploring their environment. A content dragon is active, alert, and shows an interest in their surroundings. Providing a suitable habitat, proper nutrition, and regular socialization will help ensure your bearded dragon’s contentment.

Enrichment and Mental Stimulation

Creating an Enriching Environment

Creating an enriching environment is important for the overall well-being and mental stimulation of your bearded dragon. Provide a variety of decorations and climbing opportunities, such as rocks, branches, and platforms. Additionally, incorporating different textures, colors, and hiding spots will encourage exploration and engagement with their surroundings.

Providing Suitable Toys

While bearded dragons may not play with toys in the same way as other pets, providing suitable toys can still offer mental stimulation and entertainment. Options such as basking platforms, puzzle feeders, or even partially burying feeder insects in the substrate can engage their natural foraging instincts.

Mental Stimulation Activities

Engaging in various mental stimulation activities can help keep your bearded dragon entertained and prevent boredom. Activities such as supervised outdoor exploration, gentle interaction with safe objects or textures, and offering a shallow container with water for them to soak and explore can provide mental enrichment.

Environmental Enrichment

Environmental enrichment can be achieved by periodically rearranging or adding new decorations to your bearded dragon’s enclosure. This stimulates their natural curiosity and prevents them from becoming bored with their environment. Providing different textures, objects, and even introducing pleasant scents or sounds can help create a stimulating and dynamic habitat.

Preventing Boredom

Preventing boredom is crucial for the overall well-being of your bearded dragon. Providing a variety of enrichment activities, social interaction, and opportunities for exploration outside of their enclosure can help keep them mentally and physically stimulated. Rotation of toys, offering different foods, and occasionally changing the layout of their enclosure can all help prevent boredom and increase their quality of life.

Reproduction and Breeding

Preparing for Breeding

Breeding bearded dragons should only be undertaken with careful consideration and proper preparation. It is important to have a thorough understanding of the species, as well as the resources and time necessary to care for potential offspring. Ensure both the male and female dragons are healthy, of appropriate age and weight, and have undergone a cooling period to trigger reproduction behaviors.

Mating Process

The mating process for bearded dragons involves a series of courtship behaviors, such as head-bobbing, arm-waving, and circling. The female may display receptivity by allowing the male to approach, while the male will nudge, nip, or mount the female. Successful mating results in the female producing eggs for incubation.

Egg Incubation

After successful mating, it is important to provide appropriate conditions for egg incubation. The eggs should be carefully collected, inspected for viability, and placed in an incubator with specific temperature and humidity settings. Depending on the species, incubation periods can range from 55 to 80 days. Regular monitoring of the temperature, humidity, and condition of the eggs is important to ensure their successful development.

Caring for Hatchlings

Caring for hatchlings requires attention to their specific needs. Hatchlings should be housed individually in smaller enclosures to prevent competition and stress. Provide appropriate heat and UVB lighting, offer small, appropriately sized food items, and monitor their growth and development closely. Regular check-ups with a reptile veterinarian are recommended to ensure the hatchlings are healthy and thriving.

Sexing Baby Bearded Dragons

Determining the sex of baby bearded dragons can be challenging until they reach a certain size and show more obvious sexual characteristics. Typically, male dragons have larger, more pronounced femoral pores on their underside, and may also develop hemipenal bulges as they grow. Consulting a reptile veterinarian or experienced breeder for sexing assistance is advisable if you are uncertain.

Traveling with Your Bearded Dragon

Preparing for Travel

When planning to travel with your bearded dragon, it is important to ensure they are properly prepared for the journey. This includes having a suitable travel enclosure, packing necessary supplies (such as food, water, and heat sources), and ensuring their health and vaccinations are up to date. Researching and adhering to any travel regulations or restrictions is also essential.

Choosing the Right Transportation

Choosing the right transportation method is crucial for the comfort and safety of your bearded dragon during travel. Secure, well-ventilated carriers or travel enclosures made specifically for reptiles are recommended. Avoid exposing your dragon to extreme temperatures, prolonged periods of vibration, or rough handling during transportation.

Managing Temperature and Stress

Temperature management is vital when traveling with a bearded dragon. Ensure that the carrier or travel enclosure is placed in a location that maintains the appropriate temperature range for your dragon, using heat pads or heat packs if necessary. Minimizing stress during travel by keeping noise levels low, maintaining a stable environment, and providing familiar items, such as a favorite hiding spot, can help keep your dragon calm and comfortable.

Feeding During Travel

Feeding your bearded dragon during travel may not always be practical, especially for shorter trips. However, if the journey is longer, it may be necessary to offer them food. Pack easily digestible food items, such as small portions of leafy greens or pre-prepared insect feeders, to ensure they have access to adequate nutrition during transport. Be mindful of any specific dietary needs or restrictions your dragon may have.

Considerations for Accommodation

When choosing accommodations during your trip, it’s important to ensure that your bearded dragon’s needs are met. Research pet-friendly accommodations that allow reptiles and specifically inquire about their policies regarding exotic pets. Prioritize locations that provide suitable temperature control, access to natural light, and a quiet environment to minimize stress.

Legal and Ethical Considerations

Laws and Regulations

Before acquiring a bearded dragon, it is essential to familiarize yourself with the relevant laws and regulations regarding their ownership. Some regions may have specific requirements or restrictions on keeping exotic pets, including permits, enclosure standards, or restrictions on the capture or importation of certain species. Ensure that you are in compliance with local laws to maintain a responsible and legal ownership status.

Ethical Considerations for Keeping Bearded Dragons

Keeping bearded dragons as pets raises ethical considerations regarding their welfare and well-being. Responsible ownership includes providing appropriate enclosures, nutrition, and veterinary care, as well as considering the impact of captivity on their natural behaviors and instincts. Research and educate yourself on the specific needs and requirements of bearded dragons to ensure you can provide an environment that promotes their overall welfare.

Responsible Ownership

Responsible ownership of a bearded dragon involves meeting all of their physical, behavioral, and social needs. This includes providing a suitable enclosure, a balanced diet, regular veterinary care, mental stimulation, and socialization opportunities. Researching their specific requirements, dedicating time and resources to their care, and continually educating yourself on best practices are all essential aspects of responsible ownership.

Rescue and Adoption

Considering adoption or rescue of a bearded dragon can be a responsible choice for those looking to add one to their family. Many bearded dragons are in need of homes due to various circumstances, including abandonment or relinquishment. Contacting local reptile rescues or organizations can help you find a bearded dragon in need of a loving home and provide you the opportunity to make a positive impact.

Educational Engagement

Engaging in educational activities and programs can promote a better understanding and appreciation for bearded dragons. Participating in reptile expos, joining reptile clubs or forums, and supporting educational initiatives can further knowledge and help promote responsible ownership. Sharing your experiences and knowledge with others can help raise awareness about the proper care and welfare of bearded dragons.

In conclusion, caring for bearded dragons requires proper housing and environment, a balanced diet, socialization, regular veterinary care, grooming, and an understanding of their behavior and communication. By providing the necessary care and attention, you can ensure the well-being and happiness of your beloved bearded dragon companion.